This article is about the civilian respirator. For the firefighter gas mask, see T. gázálarc/33M tűzoltóálarc
The 33M was the first civilian gas mask in Hungary and it was issued to the Légoltalmi Liga (the predecessor of Polgári védelem – Civil Defence) before and during the Second World War.
The mask is a rubber-coated tan-colored canvas facepiece and seals on the face via goat leather verge and the sewing is sealed with a thin rubber stripe on the outside. The shatterproof (it is composed of two glass layers and a thin sheet of cellulose between) glasses are crimped to copper assemblies which are pressed to the faceblank permanently. The harness uses a one-piece adjustable harness hooked up to a small leather center-piece the straps are sewed to, an additional strap near the bottom would be wrapped around the user's head and hooked around to provide a tight seal, the carrying strap is sewed together with this, unlike other Hungarian masks the harness can be adjusted on the head. The 40mm aluminium intake is on the front of the mask while the copper exhale valve housing is under the left eyepiece, the exhale vale itself just like on many later Hungarian masks is tulip stlyed. Unlike the Cold War Hungarian masks, the size 1 is the biggest and size 3 is the smallest.
Main article: 33M szűrőbetét
The filter comes in a cylindrical canister with a cap and sticker sealing the bottom. Very similar to the 34M filter but not the same.
Bag and kit Edit
The bag is similar to the 34M bag, made of canvas with a leather bottom. The little pocket inside the bag is for the anti-fogging soap.
The kit contained:
- 33M facepiece
- 33M filter
- 33M bag
- antifog inserts
External info Edit
In the early 1930s the need of a civilian gas mask emerged because of the many little wars around the world and the fear of the modern warfare tactics. Mercur being the only gas mask manufacturer in Hungary probably examined foreign models to draw inspiration from them. So not surprising that the 33M for the first look is structurally very similar to the Auer and Degea 700 series masks but despite the fact that Mercur bought the 28M license from Auer the harness connection, facepiece shape and the filter intake is rather resemblances the Dräger Gasmaske 200. However own developments were also used, like the eyepiece assemblies because the already available 28M one and other foreign designs were probably deemed outdated or difficult to manufacture. The other new feature was the "tulip" style exhale valve because the German "glimmer" valve most likely had the same problems as the eyepieces. These attributes were incorporated with the already available machines which were made and purchased with the 28M license. Thus, the first both Hungarian designed and manufactured mask was born.After July 1, 1938, it is not allowed to sell this mask so probably the production stopped before this date.
Before 1936 the price of a kit was 20 Pengő, the mask itself was 14 and the bag costed 3,50. After 1936 the kit costed 23 Pengő.
Impact on gas mask design Edit
Despite that the mask is rather unknown it has a great impact on the Hungarian gas mask designing. The design style, eyepiece assembly, strap system and used materials are very similar (with little differences) on the later 34M, 67M, 75M and Ipari teljes álarc. Some of these masks were even used in the 1990s.
- Horler Ferenc: A polgári lakosság önvédelme légitámadások ellen (book-1938)
- Légoltalmi ismeretek (book-1937)