The Hungarian 75M, mostly and wrongly known as 76M is a Civil Defense gas mask originally issued to civilians and to the Polgári védelem (Civil Defence) during the Cold War.
The facepiece is made of rubber coated green canvas glued and squezeed with a metal ring covered with tape (more about it in the Variants section) to a bakelite valve housing with a 40mm gost thread. The mask and seals on the face via goat leather verge. The eyepieces are crimped on and the assemblies are nearly the same as on the 34M but the glass is not shatterproof. The head harness is nearly the same as on the 34M and 67M but the elastication was provided by rubber bands on the 75M. The straps are connected on the back to a metal piece to which is bolted to a leather square. An additional strap is goes around the neck to provide airtight seal and there is a carrying strap on the back bottom as well. Size 1 is the smallest and 4 is the biggest, size 0 was meant for children but was produced in very small numbers.
Early models Edit
Masks made in the 1970s have metalic copper colored metal parts (eyepiece assemblies and buckles) and the metal ring that squeezes the canvas to the bakelite is covered with a grey tape like on the 67M.
Late models Edit
The later models have bare steel alloy metal parts and are lack of the tape on the valve.
75M facepiece with a hood very similar to the ones on the Hungarian chemical suits, made of canvas covered with opanol. It was probably an experimental serie in the 1980s to increase the protection level of the obsolete mask. And because the chemical suits doesn't seal well with the mask it was an attempt to produce a mask for heavy decontamination purposes which is suprising knowing that the 60M and 70M were already in service in that role by the Polgári Védelem (Civil Defence). Similar designs were already used by the industry, for example the Fejvédő kámzsa LIX porvédővel.
Main article: 70M filter
The 75M was issued with a filter extremely similar to the filter issued with the Soviet PMG series. It uses a GOST thread.
Bag and kit Edit
Simple canvas bag (PV-75M or just 75M) with 2 smaller parts in the lower section. The smaller is for the spare filter. The bag has 3 straps: one shoulder and two for fixing around the waist. It was made in several colors but the difference is minor.
The kit contained:
- 75M facepiece
- 70M filter
- Hydrophobic socket for filters
- PV-75M bag
- Antifog soap (the antifog inserts and fixing ring were dropped to reduce costs)
The civilians would have been only given the kit but the registred and non-registered members of the Polgárivédelem were also issued with a Védőmunkaruha (protective work suit, made out of thick canvas, it gave minor protection against toxic agents) or a 75M összfegyvernemi védőkészlet (joint service general purpose personal protective equipment). Important factories also stored these masks alongside with other equipment (like ERBVCS) and certain workers were trained what to do in case of a war (non-registered members of the Civil Defence).
There are only fewer documents and photos proving that the mask was used in the industry than about the 67M. Most of the photos are from exhibitions, there are no photos where the mask is being used. Some masks can be found in very bad used condition with Medicor industrial filters, but it have to be considered that after Chernobyl the Polgári Védelem (Civil Defence) was mainly focused on industrial disasters so a huge amount of filters were purchased and this can be the reason behind this anomaly. It can also occur that after the decommission of the masks in 1990 and then the appearance on the surplus market made it a good choice for individuals for private use.
External information Edit
In the early 1970s a cheaper solution was needed than the 67M to provide a mask to every citizen. To reduce costs nearly the same eyepiece assemblies and buckles were used as on the earlier 33M and 34M. Even the antifog insert fixing ring was dropped. The main change was the new bakelite valve.
The mask has a great impact on the popular culture, a mask can be found basically in every Hungarian household mostly because it was widely available after the regime change when the stockpiles were sold out (in the Cold War the masks were kept in Civil Defence warehouses and were not given to civilians). Because of this availability the mask (with the 70M filter) has still a great role in defending civilians against chemical agents, a lot of people still uses these masks on demonstrations against tear gas (notably on the 2006 autumn and 2018 winter demonstrations).
The bag itself is still very popular in certain music groups but not that much as the 70M “szimatszatyor” (flair bag).
The official designation is 75M not 76M. The incorrect designation is similar to the 51M case. Because the previous mask was the 67M people somehow confused the two.
- Módszertani segédlet a rendszeresített egyéni vegyvédelmi eszközök használatára (book-1973)