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The Hungarian 76M also known in Hungary as 75M is a Civil Defense gas mask originally issued to civilians and to the Polgári védelem (Civil Defence) during the Cold War.

Overview Edit

The facepiece is made of rubber coated green canvas glued and squezeed with a metal ring covered with tape (more about it in the Variants section) to a bakelite valve housing with a 40mm gost thread. The eyepieces are crimped on and the assemblies are nearly the same as on the 33M, so the glass is not shatterproof. The head harness is nearly the same as on the 33M and 34M, 5 pointed and 3 part adjustable and elasticated with rubber bands (on the 33M, 34M, 67M the elastication were provided by springs). The straps are connected on the back to a metal piece to which is bolted to a leather square. An additional strap is goes around the neck to provide airtight seal and there is a carrying strap on the back bottom as well. 

Variants Edit

Early models Edit

Masks made in the 1970s have metalic copper colored metal parts (eyepiece assemblies and buckles) and the metal ring that squeezes the canvas to the bakelite is covered with a grey tape like on the 67M.

Late models Edit

The later models have bare steel alloy metal parts and are lack of the tape on the valve.

"Hood" variantEdit

76M facepiece with a hood very similar to the ones on the Hungarian chemical suits, made of canvas covered with opanol. It was an experimental serie in the 1980s probably to increase the protection level of the obsolete mask. And because the chemical suits doesn't seal well wit the mask it was an attempt to produce a mask for heavy decontamination purposes which is suprising knowing that the 60M and 70M were already in service in that role.

Filter Edit

Main article: 70M filter

The 76M was issued with a filter extremely similar to the filter issued with the Soviet PMG series. It uses a GOST thread.

Bag and kit Edit

Simple canvas bag (PV-75M or just 75M) with 2 smaller parts in the lower section. The smaller is for the spare filter. The bag has 3 straps: one shoulder and two for fixing around the waist. It was made in several colors but the difference is minor.

The kit contained:

  • 76M facepiece
  • 70M filter
  • Hydrophobic socket for filters
  • 75M bag
  • Antifog soap (the antifog inserts and fixing ring were dropped to reduce costs)

Service Edit

Civil defenceEdit

The civilians would get only the kit but the registred and non-registered members of the Polgárvédelem (Civil Defence) were also issued with a Védőmunkaruha (protective work suit, made out of thick canvas, it gave minor protection against toxic agents) or a 75M összfegyvernemi védőkészlet (joint service general purpose personal protective equipment). Important factories also stored these masks alongside with other equipment (like ERBVCS) and certain workers were trained what to do in case of a war (non-registered members of the Civil Defence).

ArmyEdit

The mask was issued to the MN (Magyar Néphadsereg - Hungarian People's Army) too but it was more like storing, those were never used by the army because the MN always had enough 60M and 70M masks.

External information Edit

HistoryEdit

In the early 1970s a cheaper solution was needed than the 67M to provide a mask to every citizen. To reduce costs nearly the same eyepiece assemblies and buckles were used as on the earlier 33M and 34M. Even the antifog insert fixing ring was dropped. The main change was the new bakelite valve. 

Popular cultureEdit

The mask has a great impact on the popular culture, a mask can be found basically in every Hungarian household mostly because it was widely available after the regime change when the stockpiles were sold out (in the Cold War the masks were kept in Civil Defence warehouses and were not given to civilians). Because of this availability the mask (with the 70M filter) has still a great role in defending civilians against chemical agents, a lot of people still uses these masks on demonstrations against tear gas (notably on the 2006 autumn and 2018 winter demonstrations).

The bag itself is still very popular in certain music groups but not that much as the 70M “szimatszatyor” (flair bag).

Gallery Edit

References Edit

  • Módszertani segédlet a rendszeresített egyéni vegyvédelmi eszközök használatára (book-1973)
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