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The M31 was a multi-porpouse face piece that succeded the M23 as the army's main gas mask.

Mask overview Edit

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R.M.2 gas mask marking

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M31 filter for the R.M.2

The face piece is made of thick rubber coloured either white or black. The eye pieces are made of the same "unbreakable" glass as the later T.35. The mask sports the standard Italian five straps system. At the bottom of the face piece stands the intake-outtake piece, which houses the exhale valve and the connection to the hose. At the end of the hose stands the M31 filter, attached with tape.

The kit Edit

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R.M.2 satchel

The mask came in a two-sections satchel, one for the mask and the other for the filter and hose. The filter section had a sloped metal piece to allow air flow to the filter's bottom. The mask also came with anti-fogging lenses and soap.

The R.M.2 Edit

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R.M.2 gas mask and filter

This mask was the Navy's variant of the M31. The main differences were the kind of rubber used and the lack of the intake-outtake piece, replaced by the dual exhale valve system. The kit was the same as the normal M31, except for the bag, which had holes in the filter section instead of the sloped metal piece.
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M31 mask with the hose for the Autoprotettore Mod. 35

The Autoprotettore Mod. 35 Edit

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Autoprotettore Mod. 35

The Autoprotettore Mod. 35 was a self-contained breathing apparatus made by Spasciani. This kind of device was used by people who needed a continous flow of oxigen, for example firefighters. The face piece was connected through a hose to the backpack, which was not very large.
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M31 face piece with GM30 intake-outtake piece, german filter and german gas mask container

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Short instructions on the Autoprotettore's box

Spanish civil war use Edit

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Spanish M31 markings

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M31 face piece with GM30 intake-outtake piece

During the Spanish Civil War there were no officially exported gas masks, hence no type designation and no service regulations or instructions. The italian troops fighting there sported a black coloured T.35 or an M31 (or M33) with a GM-30 intake-outtake piece with either a Spanish or a German filter and satchel.Some of those masks were also issued to local Spanish groups.