The Népgázálarc (Folk gas mask) is a Hungarian civilian gas mask that was available for civilians before and during the Second World War.
The facepiece is a rubber coated claret canvas mask. The eyepiece is made of an early plastic (cellon – this is why most mask can be found with yellowed eyepieces). Antifog soap was issued despite of antifog inserts. The harness is a simple two-piece system with a third part around the neck to provide tight seal. The valves made of metal (aluminium). The exhalation valve is under the left eyepiece. It was made in 5 sizes, unlike the Cold War Hungarian masks the size 1 is the largest and size 5 is the smallest.
Main article: 35M filter
The filter is green painted cylindrical canister filter. A sticker covers the intake which had to be torn of before use.
Bag and kit
The bag is a basic canvas bag with only one big part inside. The kit contained:
- 35M facepiece
- 35M filter
- Bag or cardboard box
- Antifog soap
Price and availability
The kit was 13 Pengő (it was the Hungarian money that time, 13 Pengő is now worth about 26€) in 1938. A cheaper option packed in a cardboard box was 11 Pengő. Spare filter was 2 Pengő 50 Fillér. The kit could be bought in the shops of Mercur Műszaki és Vegyipari Rt. or ordered through a newspaper. Légoltalmi Liga (the predecessor of Polgári védelem - Civil Defence) organised an aid project to collect money for the gas masks of the poor. It could be supported by buying a special stamp.
Common misinformation that these masks were made for children because of the small sizes and color. Of course the smaller ones were for children.
- Size 1: for adults
- Size 2: for adults
- Size 3: for adults
- Size 4: for women and 9-13 years old children
- Size 5: for 6-8 years old children
Post war manufactring
According to some references the mask was manufactured after the war until 1956 because of the Cold War and Yugoslav threat.
- Horler Ferenc: A polgári lakosság önvédelme légitámadások ellen (book-1938)
- Légoltalmi ABC (book-1939)